A gambling game (fr. Jeu de hasard letters. “Game of chance”; before the revolution in Russia they wrote “gambling”, from archaism to “risk”) - a game with the goal of winning money or other material values, in which the gain is fully or significantly the degree does not depend on the skill of the players, but on the case, and the main interest is directed not at the game process, but at its outcome .
Although the outcome of each individual gambling depends on chance, the results of a long series of games are subject to certain statistical laws . The owners of roulettes and other gambling houses always win when playing for a long time, even if the game is not accompanied by any fraud. This is determined by the very conditions of the game. Establishment of conditions under which the game is “fair” or “harmless”, that is, gives both sides exactly the same chance of winning, as well as the conditions that provide for the production of the game on a large scale (that is, with a very large number of its repetitions) a certain gain of one side, is the subject of mathematical research relating to the field of probability theory .
In ancient India, as well as throughout the world, dice was known. The collection of Vedic hymns “Rig Veda” contains the poem “Player Complaints”, which warns against gambling: “Do not play dice, but plow your furrow! Find pleasure in your property and value it highly! “Watch your cattle and your wife, despicable player!” In the book "Bhavishya Purana" there is a story related to gambling: a certain prince lost everything, including his own wife, playing dice. The epos "Mahabharata" calls gambling a game of dice, which nevertheless describes in sufficient detail.
There is evidence of a passion for gambling dice among the ancient Greeks, especially the Corinthians. Only in Sparta, gambling was completely expelled . Gambling is also mentioned in the mythology of ancient Greece. According to Greek legend, Palamedeus proposed a dice game to entertain Greek soldiers who were bored while waiting for the siege of Troy. The Greek biographer Plutarch mentions the Persian Empress Parisatis [to specify], a passionate admirer of the game of dice.
Ancient Roman law, fully aware of the demoralizing influence of gambling, treated them with all severity and decided that money lost in illegal games (alea, as they were called in Rome, unlike legal ones, ludi, qui virtutis causa piunt), money can be claimed back to the loser .
The gambling among the Germans was unusually popular. The ancient German lost not only his property, but also freedom: the loser and no longer having anything to pay were sold into slavery. Although legislative restrictions began to appear in the XIII century, and in the XIV century and in Germany, as elsewhere, gambling houses (first arising in the XII century in Italy) began to be prohibited; but until modern times, in small German states, gambling houses in the form of roulettes and other nativity scenes were not only tolerant, but also encouraged by governments, since they paid significant taxes to poor treasuries. With the rise of Prussia and the unification of Germany, the police gave a prominent reform in this area - gambling houses in German lands disappeared. Before the law on July 1, 1868 on the closure of gambling houses and the subsequent unification of the German Empire under general law, Germany was notorious for its gambling houses in Baden-Baden, Bad Doberan, Bad Ems, Wiesbaden, Hamburg and others .
Gambling from antiquity, since it can be judged on the basis of sources, was practiced only in the form of betting and throwing dice. With the invention of the art of wood and copper engraving around 1423, artists began to make cards in Spain and Germany, which served primarily for fortune telling, and then became the weapon of divination-based games, that is, gambling. Initially, the card game, which was a specialty of dark elements, served as a clever form of deception, and already in 1494 the treatise “Liber vagatorum” was published, exposing the deceptive tricks of card cheaters. The game was played in dens, zucchini, and in 1541 in England the first law was issued on the prosecution of owners of gambling dens. Until now, according to English common law, the owners of gambling houses have been prosecuted as organizers of “common nuisance”, creating the temptation of idleness and bringing together a significant number of dissolute people ”.
But, gradually gambling finds distribution both at court and among nobles. The heyday of these games is the time of Louis XIII and XIV in France, and simultaneously with these games, cheating also spreads, in which the most distinguished persons of high society have repeatedly been convicted. The fashion for gambling from the court of Louis passes to other courts of Europe (until now, most gambling games retain their French names), and gambling is becoming a favorite occupation of the nobility. The bourgeoisie of the end of the 18th century, while strengthening its influence in society, was also in a hurry to assimilate the “noble fashion”, but the spread of gambling among the bourgeoisie took noticeable dimensions only from the 30s to the 40s. XIX century (in Germany and Russia even later). The leveling of various classes in a game of chance occurred only with the construction of large gambling houses, the doors of which were open to everyone. Until then, gambling was only considered reprehensible if it was conducted outside its class circle .
Gambling "clubs" that arose in Russia since the 19th century had a sharp class-class character ("English" for the nobility, "Merchant", "Prikazchichy", etc.) .
The habit of gambling can form a person’s psychological dependence - gambling. This dependence can present both a social and a medical problem for society. One of the risk factors is personality traits: emotional instability, reduced self-control.
Dependent behavior is accompanied by depressive disorders. Researchers note signs of altered consciousness, in particular, preoccupation with the game, concentration on the game with simultaneous detachment from the surrounding reality.
When examining 96 people in Moscow who asked for help in connection with a pathological dependence on the game of slot machines, suicidal thoughts were identified in 15 cases and asthenic disorders in 36 .
Attitude to gambling.
The fight against side effects associated with excessive gambling excitement has long been one of the tasks of administrative and criminal policy in almost all countries of the world. Socially harmful aspects are reduced to the development in the population of a pursuit of easy unearned income, which at times promises quick enrichment, but often leads to dependence and impoverishment; to the temptation to take risks on someone else's account, as a result of which the number of embezzlement and appropriations increases; to the development of gambling fraud, an increase in the number of people living at the expense of others .
Despite the gambling nature, poker is currently recognized by law as an official sport in a number of countries. The Federal Court of New York recognized that poker is a game where "skill exerts a dominant influence on the outcome" . The sports bridge is officially recognized by the International Olympic Committee as a sport and entered the program of the First World Intellectual Games in Beijing in 2008.
Many gambling games have long been known in Russia, of which the clergy and the government, which ordered the monitoring of these governors, pursued the game of cards and grains. From the voivodship orders of the 17th century it is clear that those who played cards and grains were punished with a whip, and the cards and grains themselves were ordered to be taken and burned .
Under Peter I, it was initially strictly forbidden by the military to play cards or dice for money (Military charter art. § 59; Naval charter, book IV, chap. I, §§ 15, 19), and then such a ban was extended to everyone: play money is forbidden to everyone under the threat of a triple fine of money acquired in the game (decree No. 3127 of December 17 (28), 1717) . This order was confirmed during the reign of Empress Anna Ivanovna on January 23, 1733: "so that no one, playing in money, in belongings, courtyards and villages, and in people, doesn’t play any game at all, moving in particular and free houses." In addition to the duty of the police to observe this, a third of the fine collected was assigned to the scammer (No. 6313). This was hoped to counteract the increasingly widespread game, but, obviously, in vain: this order was constantly repeated (No. 9380, 10714). Only at the end of the reign of Elizabeth Petrovna (June 16, 1761) did the law make a distinction between forbidden gambling and permitted, commercial games: “it is allowed to use games in noble noble houses; Well, not for large, but for the smallest amounts of money, not for gain, but only for passing time ”(No. 11275) .
Under Empress Catherine II, at first general confirmations were issued on the prohibition of gambling (No. 11877, 12263, 12560), the invalidity of card debts and the refusal on this basis to pay money to creditors if they gave money knowingly for the game (No. 12593, 13677), and in The “Statute of the Deanery” (1781) states: “home games and games, because I do not include lawlessness or contrary to legalization, the police do not prohibit; in a forbidden game, look at the intention with which you played, and the circumstances. If the game served the player as fun or relaxation in the midst of his family and with friends, and the game is not prohibited, then there is no fault; if the game is the player’s only exercise and business, or the house in which the game took place is open day and night for all people indiscriminately, and that there is forbidden profit right there and then, after investigating, fix it according to the laws. The request and the claim for the debt for the game may be destroyed ”(Const. Blessed § 67) .
Especially at the beginning of the reign of Emperor Alexander I, the government energetically pursues gambling. By decrees of the St. Petersburg Military Governor-General of 1801 and Moscow, 1806, it was ordered to have unswerving observation so that there were no gambling guilty to be sent to court and to inform the emperor of their names (No. 19938, 22107). The provisions carried out during the reign of Emperor Alexander I and the decrees from the Catherine's “Statute of the Deanery” were transferred almost unchanged to the “Statute on the Prevention and Suppression of Crimes” (Articles 444–449, v. XIV), which existed in the Russian Empire until 1917. The law distinguished commercial games that were allowed from gambling, forbidden. It is the responsibility of the executive police to ensure that such gambling is not carried out anywhere, as well as the duty to find gambling houses and institute legal proceedings against their founders and participants. Prescribing to the police what it should reveal during the investigation (the kind and instrument of the game, the time, place of it, the participants, the purpose of the game and circumstances explaining what intention they played), the law instructed the police to proceed with caution so as not to cause unnecessary slander, insults and worries. "In Moscow, sweepstakes were banned in 1889 by order of the Moscow Governor-General .
In Soviet law, in the period preceding the new economic policy, all kinds of gambling were severely persecuted as a form of speculative enrichment. On November 24, 1917, a resolution was issued by the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee to close all gambling clubs and dens. However, the Bolsheviks did not wage a serious struggle with the gambling business and it continued to exist illegally. In the spring of 1918, the Council of Commissars of the Petrograd Labor Commune considered and rejected the proposal of M. I. Kalinin on the legalization and taxation (10-30% of income) of gambling establishments in Petrograd .
On November 9, 1921, the Council of Labor and Defense of the RSFSR  permitted, with special permission from the executive committees, concession devices for gambling clubs that allowed paid play of “non-gambling games” , and the sale of playing cards was also allowed . Since the end of 1923, in connection with a sociological study of the leisure of Petrograd workers and the identification of negative phenomena associated with them, a wide campaign was launched to close casinos, lotto halls and other gambling establishments in the "sleeping areas" of cities, for which a special commission was formed to fight with moonshine, cocaine and gambling. In May 1928, the Council of People's Commissars banned gambling houses everywhere, and 201 articles were added to the Criminal Code that threatened the organizers of gambling with a long prison term . Only lotteries and sweepstakes close to gambling were allowed on hippodromes, this situation persisted throughout the subsequent years of the existence of the USSR. The most popular and the most popular was the state lottery "Sportloto", which began its activities in 1976, and directed all its income to financing sports, including the 1980 Moscow Olympics. From 1940 to 1973, the bridge was also recognized as a sport, most popular in Riga, where international tournaments were held on it, but then the bridge was banned as not conforming to the "Code of Morality of the Builder of Communism" .
In 1988, it was allowed to install about 200 slot machines in Intourist hotels for the entertainment of foreigners. In the spring of 1989, the first casino opened in Tallinn, and in August the casino appeared in the Moscow Savoy Hotel .
Since 1990, with the collapse of the USSR, casinos and slot machines began to appear in Russia with virtually no restrictions. Since July 1, 2009, gambling in Russia has been officially banned, except for four “gambling zones” located away from the largest cities of the country. Nevertheless, some gambling establishments continue to function illegally under the signs of “electronic lotteries”, Internet cafes and computer clubs .
According to the current legislation of the Russian Federation, gambling is “a risk-based winnings agreement concluded between two or more participants in such an agreement between themselves or with the organizer of a gambling according to the rules established by the organizer of a gambling” .
In 2006, a law was passed prohibiting the organization of casinos and gambling establishments throughout Russia . The following regions were an exception: Altai Territory, the border of the Krasnodar Territory and the Rostov Region, Kaliningrad Region, and Primorye. In 2014, it was proposed to organize a gambling zone on the territory of the Crimean Peninsula .
Often, state lotteries are classified as gambling in Russia. This is not true. The federal law "On Lotteries"  introduced amendments stating that from July 1, 2014 the activities of any lotteries, except state ones, should be suspended.
In the lottery, a win is formed prior to its holding with the help of the prize pool. In a game of chance - at the expense of the money of its participants during the game. In addition, the lottery win is issued at the place indicated on the lottery ticket (or other document). In the case of gambling, winnings are given at the venue of the game.
Historians Lisa Morris and Alan Block claim that "until the 1840s, the gambling business was organized in such a way that the game was conducted mainly on steamboats plying the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, as well as the Great Lakes." Then, in spite of the ban - and perhaps as a result of this ban - the underground gambling business flourished on land, as a result of which “a few notorious“ criminal cities “” appeared. As for the lotteries, they were known in the Old World. Queen Elizabeth with a special letter authorized the holding of the first English lottery, which was organized in 1569. Later, both in America, when she was a colony of England, and in the independent United States, lotteries flourished, as they were well advertised and considered a voluntary way to replenish the national treasury. However, due to regularly recurring scandals and political attacks on lotteries, they were banned everywhere in the United States in the 19th century. The practice of conducting legal lotteries returned only in 1963 in the state of New Hampshire, and between 1965 and 1993, 35 states and the District of Columbia introduced state monopolies on the organization of lotteries . Recently, the attitude of the public towards gambling in the United States is changing towards tolerance. According to the Gallup Public Opinion Research Institute, more than 67% of those surveyed expressed the view that they did not see anything wrong with this phenomenon and that the ban on gambling in many states was of no use to society. 
Each state sets its own code of laws on gambling. There are federal laws. Market regulators - state administrations and the American Gaming Association (unites market participants - manufacturers, distributors and operators). Gambling in the United States is permitted on Indian reservations, on cruise ships, and in Nevada. The total market revenue is $ 71.1 billion annually.
There are more than 1,600 casinos in the USA. Online gambling is generally permitted, but financial transactions related to online gambling are prohibited .
The Christian church has a negative attitude to gambling, motivating by the fact that such games provoke a church’s disapproved passion for quick baseless profit and can have adverse social consequences. Passion for gambling is the reason for the eruption of a cleric from the dignity, both in Orthodoxy and in the Catholic Church; and the reason for excommunication from the church layman in Orthodoxy. There are two cathedral decrees prohibiting games, both for gambling - dice; this is the 42 rule of the holy apostles:
“The bishop, or presbyter, or deacon, playing dice (dr. Greek κύβοις ; lat. Aleator  ) and a drunken devotee, either let him stop or let him be cast out”
and rule 50 of the Council of Trullus 692:
“None of the laity and clergy henceforth indulge in the game of dice (κυβεύειν). But whoever sees it will be doing this: let the cleric be cast out of the clergy, and let the layman be excommunicated from the communion of the church. "
The rules of the apostles are adopted both in the Orthodox and in the Catholic Church. And the 50 rule of the Council of Troll is adopted only in the Orthodox Church. In the Slavic pre-Mongolian Kormchi, in the 50th rule, "κυβεύειν" is translated as "play whitefish"  lokim (face)  ", that is," play dice ". 42 rule is translated incorrectly in all the helmsmen, the words "in the bones" are omitted in the translation. In Kormcha Savva Serbsky, which has been spread in Russia since the beginning of the XIV century, displacing the pre-Mongol Kormcha, an incorrect translation and 50 rules were made, the words “in the bones” did not get into the translation. The rule in the helmsman of Savva Serbsky is as follows: “It is not like playing like a secular person” . Due to incorrect translations of these rules, in the future, the 42nd rule and the 50th rule in the Russian Local Church were interpreted as a ban at all on any games. Cathedral ban on games: grains, checkers, chess and dice was adopted in 1551 by the Stoglav Cathedral:
“The Holy Ecumenical Sixth Council, rule 50 and 51 prohibits all playing. The rule of the Council of Fiftieth forbids the playing of grain and chess  , and tavelas   , and influences, rex dice, and other such games to everyone and the laity. 51 rule, any play prohibits and discards both the tribunals and ordinary people .
Chapter 92 of the 100-head cathedral “On the games of the Hellenic demoniac” ”
Islam has banned gambling. Therefore, in most Islamic countries, gambling is illegal .
In Judaism, gambling is also prohibited. Although there is no mention of them in the Torah, games are condemned in the Talmud .
According to The Economist magazine , the total loss (bets minus winnings) from gambling, including casinos, sports bets, lotteries, etc., amounted to approximately $ 350 billion in 2011. At the same time, 50 billion accounted for online betting.
The first three places in terms of the share of the loss in world volume were occupied by: Hong Kong - 32%, Sweden - 23%, Great Britain - 21%.
An increase in the number of participants in various gambling significantly affects the attitude to risk in other areas, in particular in the securities market: natural mechanisms for avoiding risks are suppressed, and the habit of gambling facilitates the transition to the level of gambling in the stock market .
At the beginning of 2016, KeyToCasino.com analysts conducted an online casino market research, which showed that the most popular currency among online casino players is the Euro, which took the lead from the US dollar. 
In classical literature.
Several works of Russian classics were devoted to gambling and their influence on the fate of a person who was carried away by them. Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin gambling plot of his story "Queen of Spades." The comedy play by Nikolai Vasilyevich Gogol "Players" raises the image of scammers. Also, the theme of gambling as the plot of the story was used by Mikhail Yurievich Lermontov in Masquerade, Shtosse and Tambov Treasury. Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky dedicated the novel "The Player", which tells of the spiritual blindness of a person whose passion for life has become excitement. Osip Emilievich Mandelstam in the poem “Casino” figuratively describes his condition when he is surrounded by gambling machines. In the story “The Brilliant Player”, Alexander Stepanovich Green introduces the idea of win-win cards into the plot, which kills the idea of the game itself; in the story “System” by Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin, the story is about an invincible player from Monte Carlo, who, due to his abilities, casino owners have closed access to their institutions.
In the visual arts.
From the end of the 16th century, artists began to portray gambling, emphasizing their destructive influence on the individual. A series of such images was created by Willem Cornelis Deister, Georges de Latour, Caravaggio.
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Federal judge acknowledges poker as a game of skill
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Closing a casino in Russia
Crimean authorities proposed to transfer the gambling zone from Yalta to Yevpatoriya
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"Κῠβεία" - "dice game" (Ancient Greek-Russian Dictionary of Butler. "Κῠβεία")
“Aleator” - “playing dice” (The Big Latin-Russian Dictionary)
another version of the translation of the word "κύβοις" in Latin is "tesseris"
I.I. Sreznevsky. Materials for the dictionary of the Old Russian language on written monuments. St. Petersburg, 1890-1912. Volume III R-Ѩ (small iotated yus) and additions 1912. column 343. “whitefish”
I.I. Sreznevsky. Materials for the dictionary of the Old Russian language on written monuments. St. Petersburg, 1890-1912. Volume II L - P 1902. column 71. “lѣkъ, lѣka”
Beneshevich V.N. Old-Slavic Pilot. Volume 1, 1906 Edition p. 178
Piloting 1650. p. 523
The word "chess" of the Old Russian language means both "checkers", and actually "chess"
I.I. Sreznevsky. Materials for the dictionary of the Old Russian language on written monuments. St. Petersburg, 1890-1912. Volume III R-Ѩ (small iotated yus) and additions 1912. column 1584. “chess”
"Tavlia, tavlѣya" from other Greek. "Τάβλα, τάβλη"; (lat. "tabula") - "playing board"
Ancient Greek-Russian Dictionary of the Butler. “Τάβλα and τάβλη” Archived on March 30, 2016.
I.I. Sreznevsky. Materials for the dictionary of the Old Russian language on written monuments. St. Petersburg, 1890-1912. Volume III R-Ѩ (small iotated yus) and additions 1912. column 911. tavlia = tavlѣya
Stoglav. Chapter 92 “On the merrymaking of Hellenic demonicism”
The attitude of Islam to gambling
Play demonic games
Bedbetting The Ecomonist, June 4, 2012
Schiller, Robert, 2013, p. 103.
The US Dollar Loses Its Crown As The Most Popular Currency In Online Casinos. WebWire Date of treatment March 18, 2017.
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